11th Century

Exeter, Siege of 1068

THE SIEGE OF EXETER Autumn 1068 SUMMARY Harold Godwinson’s mother, Gytha had enlisted the support of the people of Exeter and they vowed to resist the rule of William I —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William Duke of Normandy had conquered England in 1066, winning the Battle of Hastings and killing King Harold II (Godwinson) and been crowned King […]

Stamford Bridge, Battle of 1066

THE BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE – VIKING INVASION 25th September 1066 SUMMARY The forces of Harold Godwinson defeated the forces of Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1066 Edward the Confessor had died childless. Harold Godwinson had been crowned King but Harald Hardrada and William of Normandy both thought they should be King. Hardrada […]

Val es Dunes, Battle of 1047

THE BATTLE OF VAL ES DUNES 10th August 1047 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between the combined forces of William Duke of Normandy and Henry I of France against Guy of Burgundy. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William, the bastard son of Robert Duke of Normandy, had inherited his father’s title.  Guy of Burgundy, one of William’s kinsmen, felt […]

Stiklestad, Battle of 1030

THE BATTLE OF STIKLESTAD 29th July 1030 SUMMARY This was a battle fought between the forces of Olaf Haraldsson and a peasant army of men loyal to Cnut —-oOo—- BACKGROUND The Norwegian Olaf Haraldsson had been displaced and forced to flee following the battle of Helgea in 1026. In 1030, following the death of regent Hakon, Olaf returned to […]

Helgea, Battle of 1026

THE BATTLE OF HELGEA unknown date 1026 SUMMARY This was a naval battle fought between Cnut of England and Denmark and a combined Swedish and Norwegian force —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Cnut had taken the English throne in 1016 becoming ruler of both England and Denmark. While Cnut was in England the Swedes and Norwegians had launched a series of […]

Brentford, Battle of 1016

THE BATTLE OF BRENTFORD 9th May 1016 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought the Danish Vikings and the Anglo Saxons —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1013 Sweyn Forkbeard had conquered much of England and had proclaimed himself King of the land. When he died in 1014 he nominated his son Cnut to be King but the Anglo-Saxons chose to […]

Viking Invasion of England

THE VIKING INVASION OF ENGLAND – 793 – 1066 WHO WERE THE VIKINGS? The Vikings came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Their countries lacked fertile land so it was difficult to grow crops. They built ships which they used to travel from one place to another. They were skilled in fighting and mostly used sword, shield […]

Olivento, Battle of, 1041

THE BATTLE OF OLIVENTO – NORMAN LOMBARD REVOLT 17th March 1041 SUMMARY This was a battle fought between the Byzantine army and a joint Norman-Lombard force —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Arduin the Lombard was a former member of the Byzantine army who had decided to ally himself with the Normans. It was agreed that if victorious land in […]

Nisa, Battle of, 1062

THE BATTLE OF NISA – NORSE INVASION OF DENMARK 9th August 1062 SUMMARY This was a naval battle between Harald Hardrada of Norway and Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark. Although the Nowegians were victorious they allowed so many Danes, including Estrithson, to escape that it was no victory at all. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1045 Harald Hardrada […]

Mortemer, Battle of, 1053

THE BATTLE OF MORTEMER 1053 SUMMARY This was a battle saw a decisive victory for the forces of William, Duke of Normandy over the combined forces of King Henry I of France and Geoffrey Count of Anjou. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William had become Duke of Normandy in 1035 following the death of his father, Robert. William […]

Montemaggiore, Battle of, 1041

THE BATTLE OF MONTEMAGGIORE – NORMAN LOMBARD REVOLT 4th May 1041 SUMMARY This was a battle fought between the Byzantine army and a joint Norman-Lombard force —-oOo—- BACKGROUND This battle was a part of a Norman-Lombard revolt against the Byzantine Empire. —-oOo—- LOCATION Close to the Ofanto River, Southern Italy —-oOo—- BYZANTINE VARANGIAN GUARD LED BY […]

Hastings, Battle of, 1066

THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS – NORMAN CONQUEST 14th October 1066 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between an advancing Norman army led by William Duke of Normandy and a defensive Saxon Army led by Harold Godwinson. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William, Duke of Normandy had spent much time with Edward the Confessor during the latter’s exile […]

Alnwick, Battle of, 1093

THE BATTLE OF ALNWICK 13th November 1093 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between the attacking Scottish army led by King Malcolm Canmore and an English army led by King William II. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND After the Norman invasion and conquest of England in 1066, King Malcolm Canmore hoped to extend his territory by making […]

Fulford, Battle of, 1066

THE BATTLE OF FULFORD – VIKING INVASION 20th September 1066 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between an advancing Norwegian force led by Harald Hardrada and an English force led by Earls Morcar and Edwin. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, believed that he had a legitimate claim to the English throne because […]

Dunsinane, Battle of, 1054

THE BATTLE OF DUNSINANE 27th July 1054 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between the forces of Malcolm Canmore and Macbeth —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Macbeth had taken the throne from King Duncan in 1040. Duncan’s son was aged 9 years at the time and sought refuge with his uncle Siward, Earl of Northumberland. —-oOo—- LOCATION […]

Assandun, Battle of, 1016

BATTLE OF ASSANDUN – VIKING INVASION 18th October 1016 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between the attacking Danish army led by Canute and a defensive English army led by Edmund Ironside. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND The English had been subject to a succession of Danish challenges for more than 200 years. The reign of Aethelred […]

William the Conqueror silver coin

Exeter, Siege of 1068

THE SIEGE OF EXETER Autumn 1068 SUMMARY Harold Godwinson’s mother, Gytha had enlisted the support of the people of Exeter and they vowed to resist the rule of William I —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William Duke of Normandy had conquered England in 1066, winning the Battle of Hastings and killing King Harold II (Godwinson) and been crowned King […]

Battle of Stamford Bridge

Stamford Bridge, Battle of 1066

THE BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE – VIKING INVASION 25th September 1066 SUMMARY The forces of Harold Godwinson defeated the forces of Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1066 Edward the Confessor had died childless. Harold Godwinson had been crowned King but Harald Hardrada and William of Normandy both thought they should be King. Hardrada […]

Battle of Val es Dunes map

Val es Dunes, Battle of 1047

THE BATTLE OF VAL ES DUNES 10th August 1047 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought between the combined forces of William Duke of Normandy and Henry I of France against Guy of Burgundy. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William, the bastard son of Robert Duke of Normandy, had inherited his father’s title.  Guy of Burgundy, one of William’s kinsmen, felt […]

Battle of Stiklestad

Stiklestad, Battle of 1030

THE BATTLE OF STIKLESTAD 29th July 1030 SUMMARY This was a battle fought between the forces of Olaf Haraldsson and a peasant army of men loyal to Cnut —-oOo—- BACKGROUND The Norwegian Olaf Haraldsson had been displaced and forced to flee following the battle of Helgea in 1026. In 1030, following the death of regent Hakon, Olaf returned to […]

Olav den helliges saga

Helgea, Battle of 1026

THE BATTLE OF HELGEA unknown date 1026 SUMMARY This was a naval battle fought between Cnut of England and Denmark and a combined Swedish and Norwegian force —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Cnut had taken the English throne in 1016 becoming ruler of both England and Denmark. While Cnut was in England the Swedes and Norwegians had launched a series of […]

Knut der Große

Brentford, Battle of 1016

THE BATTLE OF BRENTFORD 9th May 1016 SUMMARY This was a decisive battle fought the Danish Vikings and the Anglo Saxons —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1013 Sweyn Forkbeard had conquered much of England and had proclaimed himself King of the land. When he died in 1014 he nominated his son Cnut to be King but the Anglo-Saxons chose to […]

Viking Invasion of England

Viking Invasion of England

THE VIKING INVASION OF ENGLAND – 793 – 1066 WHO WERE THE VIKINGS? The Vikings came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Their countries lacked fertile land so it was difficult to grow crops. They built ships which they used to travel from one place to another. They were skilled in fighting and mostly used sword, shield […]

Tomb of the Hautevilles

Olivento, Battle of, 1041

THE BATTLE OF OLIVENTO – NORMAN LOMBARD REVOLT 17th March 1041 SUMMARY This was a battle fought between the Byzantine army and a joint Norman-Lombard force —-oOo—- BACKGROUND Arduin the Lombard was a former member of the Byzantine army who had decided to ally himself with the Normans. It was agreed that if victorious land in […]

Battle of Nisa

Nisa, Battle of, 1062

THE BATTLE OF NISA – NORSE INVASION OF DENMARK 9th August 1062 SUMMARY This was a naval battle between Harald Hardrada of Norway and Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark. Although the Nowegians were victorious they allowed so many Danes, including Estrithson, to escape that it was no victory at all. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND In 1045 Harald Hardrada […]

Battle of Mortemer

Mortemer, Battle of, 1053

THE BATTLE OF MORTEMER 1053 SUMMARY This was a battle saw a decisive victory for the forces of William, Duke of Normandy over the combined forces of King Henry I of France and Geoffrey Count of Anjou. —-oOo—- BACKGROUND William had become Duke of Normandy in 1035 following the death of his father, Robert. William […]

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