BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL – AMERICAN REVOLUTION
17 JUNE 1775
The Battle of Bunker Hill was an early battle of the American Revolution near Boston, Massachusetts where a lack of ammunition doomed the Americans to a defeat, but at a heavy cost for the British.
After learning that the British planned on taking the hills surrounding Boston, Massachusetts, Militia General Artemis Ward ordered earthen redoubts built on Bunker Hill located on the Charlestown Peninsula overlooking the North side of Boston Harbor. On the night of 16 June 1775, Colonel William Prescott led 1,000 militiamen to the smaller Breed’s Hill just South of Bunker Hill and worked throughout the night building the redoubts.
Breed’s Hill, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
THE BRITISH ARMY
Major General William Howe
Brigadier General Robert Pigot
Major John Pitcairn (Killed in Action)
Captain William Glanville
General, Sir Henry Clinton
HMS Lively, HMS Falcon, HMS Somerset, HMS Glasgow, HMS Symmetry, and 2 floating batteries
THE MASSACHUSETTS and CONNECTICUT MILITIA
General Artemis Ward
Major General Israel Putnam
Colonel William Prescott
Colonel Richard Gridley
Dr. Joseph Warren (Killed in Action)
Colonel John Stark, commanding 800 New Hampshire Militiamen
Colonel Jonathan Brewer, Colonel John Nixon, Colonel Moses Little, Colonel Thomas Knowlton, Colonel Ephraim Doolittle and Colonel Ebenezer Bridge
A costly victory for the British Army. British Major Pitcairn (who led the British at Lexington and Concord) was killed in action as was American Dr. Joseph Warren.
Although the British were victors, they suffered heavy losses. 226 were killed in action while 828 were wounded. The Americans, although defeated, lost only 140 killed and 301 wounded. The British took the hill, but only temporarily as they were to give up the ground by the year’s end. The British learned a valid military lesson about the value of flanking attacks and would use them in almost every additional battle. Even though the Americans lost the battle, it was a morale booster as it taught them that the American determination could stand up to the more superior British forces. The British learned that the American war would last longer than previously thought.